VOLUME V - CONTEST OF EMPIRE AND PAPACY
PLANNED BY THE LATE J. B. BURY, M.A., F.B.A.
J. R. TANNER, LITT. D.
C. W. PRÉVITE-ORTON, LITT. D., F.B.A.
Z. N. BROOKE, LITT. D.
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS
CHAPTER I - THE REFORM OF THE CHURCH.
Decadence of the Church
Nilus, Romuald of Ravenna
Richard of St Vannes; Ratherius
Instances of corruption; Jaromir of Prague, Farfa
Early stages of lay patronage
Royal encroachments on the Church
Evils in the episcopate
Clerical marriage, and celibacy
The Emperor Henry II
The Emperor Conrad II
Sylvester III and Gregory VI
The Emperor Henry III
The Synod of Sutri
The Council of Rheims
The work of Leo's Pontificate
St Peter Damian
Contested succession to the Papacy
Election decree of 1059
Events in Milan
Alexander II and Honorius II
Alexander II and Milan
The commune at Milan
CH. II - GREGORY VII AND THE FIRST CONTEST BETWEEN EMPIRE AND PAPACY.
Election and early life of Pope Gregory VII
His position under Alexander II
His temperament and character
The Petrine authority
The supremacy of the spiritual power
The situation in 1073
Reconciliation with Henry IV
Contest with the German episcopate
The first decree against lay investiture
The events of the autumn of 1075
The Council of Worms
Excommunication of Henry IV
His journey to Canossa
Election of Rudolf as anti-king
The Pope's neutrality
Papal legislation, 1078-1079
Deposition of Henry IV, 1080
Council of Brixen. The anti-Pope Guibert
Alliance of the Pope with Robert Guiscard
Siege of Rome by Henry IV
Sack of Rome by the Normans
Death of Pope Gregory VII
Gregory's relations with France, England and other states
Pope Victor III
Election of Urban II
Extension of the work of Gregory VII
The organisation of the Church
Papal victory in North Italy
Little headway in Germany
The question of schismatic ordinations
Urban II's progress through north Italy and France
His last years and death
Pope Paschal II
The end of the schism
Lay investiture; settlements in France and England
The attitude of Henry V
Unsuccessful negotiations between Pope and King
The events of 1111
The Pope forced to retract his concession to Henry
Henry as heir to the Countess Matilda
Deaths of Paschal II and Gelasius II
Pope Calixtus II
The Concordat of Worms
The enhanced position of the Papacy
CH. III - GERMANY UNDER HENRY IV AND HENRY V.
CH. IV - THE CONQUEST OF SOUTH ITALY AND SICILY BY THE NORMANS.
B. THE NORMAN KINGDOM OF SICILY.
CH. V - THE ITALIAN CITIES TIL c. 1200
CH. VI. - ISLAM IN SYRIA AND EGYPT.
Disintegration of the Caliphate
Saif-ad-Daulah of Aleppo
Greek attacks on Syria
The Fatimites conquer Egypt
The Qarmations in Syria
The Caliphate and the Empire
History of Aleppo
The Emperor Basil II
Caliphate of Hakim
Ruin of the Holy Sepulchre
Egypt and Syria
The Greeks in Syria
Caliphate of Mustansir
Emergence of the Turks
Turkish conquest of Syria
Recognition of the Abbasid Caliphs
The Turks in Palestine
Eve of the First Crusade
CH. VII - THE FIRST CRUSADE
Muslim attack on Europe
Africa, Italy and Sicily
Leadership of the Pope
Pilgrimages to Jerusalem
Peril of the Eastern Empire
Purpose of the First Crusade
Pope Urban II's appeal
Leaders of the Crusade
First arrivals in Constantinople
Disaster in Asia Minor
Persecution of Jews on the Rhine
Policy of the Emperor Alexius
Latins as allies of the Eastern Empire
Godfrey of Bouillon
Bohemond of Taranto
Robert of Flanders
Raymond of Toulouse
Robert of Normandy
Treaty with Alexius
Siege of Nicaea
March through Asia Minor
Alliance with the Armenians
Siege of Antioch
Battle with Karbogha
Bohemond, Prince of Antioch
March to Jerusalem
Godfrey, Prince of Jerusalem
Numbers of the Crusaders
Peter the Hermit
CH. VIII - THE KINGDOM OF JERUSALEM, 1099-1291.
Establishment of the Kingdom
The great fiefs
The Assises of Jerusalem
Baldwin I and Baldwin II
The Military Orders
The Second Crusade
Nur-ad-Din and Amaury I
Factions among the Franks
The Fall of Jerusalem
The Third Crusade
The Franks in Syria
The Ecclesiastical Hierarchy
John de Brienne and Frederick II
Dissensions among the Muslims
St Louis in Palestine
Last days of the Kingdom
The fall of Acre
End of the Latin Kingdom
CH. IX - THE EFFECTS OF THE CRUSADES UPON WESTERN EUROPE.
The Papacy and the Crusades
Extension of Papal influence
Crusades as a source of revenue: Indulgences and clerical tithes
Peaceful crusaders: missionary work
Increase of geographical knowledge
The Crusades and economic life
Development of the towns
The conquests of Venice, Genoa and Pisa
Nationality and the Crusades
Revived study of Greek
Military results: check to Turkish advance
The Teutonic Knights
CH. X - GERMANY, 1125-1152
CH. XI - ITALY, 1125-1152
CH. XII - FREDERICK BARBAROSSA AND GERMANY.
CH. XIII - FREDERICK BARBAROSSA AND THE LOMBARD LEAGUE.
CH. XIV - The Emperor Henry VI.
CH. XV - THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DUCHY OF NORMANDY AND THE NORMAN CONQUEST OF ENGLAND.
CH. XVI - ENGLAND, 1087-1154
CH. XVII - ENGLAND: HENRY II
CH. XVIII - FRANCE: LOUIS VI AND LOUIS VII (1108-1180).
CH. XIX - The Communal Movement, especially in France.
Ch. XX - The Monastic Orders.
CH. XXI - ROMAN AND CANON LAW IN THE MIDDLE AGES.
CH. XXII - Medieval Schools to 1300.
CH. XXIII - Philosophy in the Middle Ages.
List of Abbreviations of Titles of Periodicals, Societies, etc.
Chronological Table of Leading Events mentioned in this Volume.
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